Autism and Education: Strategies for Supporting Students on the Spectrum
In today's diverse educational landscape, many students with autism find themselves in the general education classroom, which can be beneficial. Yet, this journey calls for some accommodations and unwavering support to ensure their utmost success. Creating an inclusive environment requires intentional efforts from teachers, school staff, and parents alike. Let's explore the incredible impact of providing these students with the right tools to thrive in their educational experiences, opening doors to a brighter future!
About Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism spectrum disorder includes difficulties with social skills, communication, and having behaviors that are restricted or repetitive in nature. Students with autism may face challenges in using and comprehending nonverbal behaviors, interacting with others, asking for help, and may also experience sensory issues and engage in disruptive behaviors.
These traits of autism spectrum disorder will show up uniquely in each student but, regardless of the way autistic traits are presented, students with autism can struggle in the classroom and at school. They can also be successful with the right support.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 2004 describes disability as “a natural part of the human experience [that] in no way diminishes the right of individuals to participate in or contribute to society.”
IDEA states that “education of children with disabilities can be made more effective by…having high expectations for such children and ensuring their access to the general education curriculum in the regular classroom, to the maximum extent possible.”
Students with autism should be given the opportunity to be included with their peers at school whenever possible.
Strategies for Supporting Students with Autism
There are many ways that educators and parents can support students with autism. We’ll explore some of the recommendations.
To support students with autism, parents and educators should take proactive steps to prepare the students for their education. One way to do this is to allow parents to bring their children with autism to visit the classroom and the school before the school year begins. Teachers can assist students with autism in becoming familiar with the classroom by providing guidance on locating their desk, identifying the placement of specific items, navigating to the bathroom, and reviewing essential information with them. This is helpful to do before the typical school year begins because it may take students with autism more time to get comfortable and familiar with the school environment.
Visual Supports and Task Organizers
Utilizing task organizers or visual supports is a common practice for many individuals in their daily routines, such as creating to-do lists or using calendars. For students with autism, developing visual supports or task organizers is an effective approach to provide support. This strategy not only makes abstract concepts more tangible but also aligns with the visual learning style often observed among individuals with autism.
Let’s consider some examples of visual supports and task organizers. Using color-coded systems to organize items can be helpful. Providing a visual schedule for the child to depict their daily routine for the school day can be very beneficial for students with autism. Other possible intervention strategies include things like using a planner, providing activity schedules (step-by-step instructions to complete a task), checklists, charts, graphic organizers, nametags, labeling things, providing scripts for certain social situations or certain needs, video modeling, and using lists.
It can also be helpful to provide students with autism tangible items they can use to manage sensory overload and to regulate themselves. Some examples of this strategy include fidget toys, items for chewing for oral-motor sensory stimulation, and weighted lap blankets.
Self-determination is the ability to make personal choices and assume responsibility for one's own life. It involves actively seeking solutions to enhance one's quality of life. People with disabilities, including autism, should be supported in their development of self-determination. Educators are in the position to be able to support the development of self-determination in young people.
Educators can give students opportunities to make choices. They can offer students choices of the learning materials to use or which book to read. Educators can give students with autism opportunities to solve problems. They might do this by teaching and reinforcing problem-solving skills. They could also help students with autism to create and work towards their own goals. Educators can also help students with autism to reflect on their own experiences and behaviors and to learn to advocate for themselves. They can help them to identify their strengths and abilities as well as the areas they need extra support in.
Include the Student’s Preferences
In connection with the previous strategy, incorporating the student's interests and preferences into their education is crucial. Various strategies can be done to achieve this. The teacher and support staff can engage in conversations with the student to determine their strengths and areas where they require assistance. Discovering the student's favorite subjects is beneficial. Additionally, understanding the student's preferred learning methods, such as reading, videos, or group projects, can be learned through communication. Educators and parents should also assess what makes the student feel at ease and how they effectively manage stress.
Accommodating Students with Autism
Educators can support students with autism by planning for classroom instructional routines and activities in ways that make it easier and more effective to support students with disabilities. They should consider what accommodations will be provided within their routines and activities that will support those students with disabilities such as autism.
Some students with autism could benefit from assistive technology such as text-to-speech software. There are also reading and writing programs available that can help students with disabilities to be more successful in these areas.
Understanding the Student’s Communication
To provide effective support for students with autism, it is essential to know their communication skills and requirements. This entails gaining an understanding of how the student communicates. Do they rely on verbal communication, utilize assistive devices, or employ alternative methods? By identifying the preferred mode of communication, educators and parents can better tailor their support to meet the student's specific needs.
Including the Student in the Classroom
It is also important to include the student in conversations within the classroom. Talk to the student, ask them questions, and include them in communication as much as possible to the extent that you, as an educator, would include any other student.