Many individuals with autism experience autistic burnout, a state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorder. It typically occurs when individuals face prolonged periods of intense stress, sensory overload, and/or social demands without sufficient support or accommodation.
Key Experiences Associated with Autistic Burnout
Overload and Exhaustion
Autistic burnout is characterized by a state of overwhelming physical and mental exhaustion. Individuals may feel depleted, fatigued, and unable to cope with daily demands.
Loss of Skills and Functioning
During a burnout episode, individuals may experience a regression or decline in their functioning levels. They may struggle with tasks or skills that they previously handled with ease, such as communication, executive functioning, or daily living activities.
Autistic burnout can heighten emotional sensitivity and lead to increased levels of anxiety, depression, or mood swings. Emotions may feel intensified and difficult to regulate during this period.
Sensory sensitivities, common in autism, can become heightened during burnout, leading to increased sensitivity to noise, light, touch, or other sensory stimuli. Sensory overload can further contribute to feelings of exhaustion and becoming overwhelmed.
Withdrawal and Isolation
Due to the strain of burnout, individuals may withdraw from social interactions or isolate themselves as a means of self-preservation. They may find it challenging to engage in social activities or maintain previous levels of communication.
Autistic burnout is not recognized as a clinical condition or a symptom of autism spectrum disorder in current diagnostic manuals. However, it is a commonly reported phenomenon among individuals with ASD and is starting to gain recognition in the autistic community.
How to Support People with Autistic Burnout
To support individuals experiencing autistic burnout, it is crucial to provide them with a restorative and supportive environment. This may include implementing sensory breaks, reducing environmental stressors, providing flexible accommodations, and allowing time for self-care and recovery.
Preventing Sensory Overload
To mitigate sensory overload in individuals with autism, there are several effective strategies available. These recommendations can be applied to support someone you are looking after with autism, those close to you who have autism, or even for your own benefit if you happen to have autism. Here, we present some valuable suggestions to prevent sensory overload:
- Recognize triggers: Identify the specific sensory stimuli that tend to overload or overwhelm the individual. This can include sounds, lights, textures, smells, or crowded environments. Understanding the triggers can help in developing appropriate strategies.
- Create a sensory-friendly environment: Make adjustments to the environment to minimize sensory input. For example, using dimmer lighting, reducing background noise, or providing ear defenders or headphones can help create a more calming environment.
- Use visual supports: Visual supports, such as schedules, timers, or visual cues, can help individuals anticipate and prepare for sensory experiences or transitions, reducing anxiety and unexpected sensory overload.
- Offer sensory breaks: Allow for regular breaks or designated sensory spaces where individuals can retreat to when they feel overwhelmed. These spaces should be quiet, comfortable, and contain sensory materials like fidget toys or weighted blankets that can help regulate sensory input.
- Utilize deep pressure techniques: Deep pressure or proprioceptive input can have a calming effect on the nervous system. Techniques such as gentle hugs, weighted vests, or deep pressure massages can be helpful for managing sensory overload.
- Assistive technology: Explore the use of assistive technology, such as noise-canceling headphones or tinted glasses, which can help individuals filter or modulate sensory information.
- Communication and self-advocacy: Encourage individuals to communicate their sensory needs and preferences. This can involve teaching them to express when they need a break, request adjustments to their environment, or communicate discomfort related to sensory experiences.
- Educate and promote understanding: Provide education to family members, teachers, peers, and others involved in the individual's life about sensory processing differences in autism. Raising awareness and understanding can help create a supportive and accommodating environment.
Everyone's sensory needs and preferences can vary, so it's crucial to identify and respond to the individual's specific needs. Working with healthcare professionals, occupational therapists, behavior analysts, or autism specialists can also provide valuable guidance and support in managing sensory overload in autism. Reach out to Behavioral Innovations for support.
How to Prevent Autistic Burnout
Preventing autistic burnout involves recognizing early signs of stress and anxiety, implementing strategies to manage and reduce stressors, and promoting self-care and well-being. In addition to utilizing the previously mentioned strategies, the following strategies can be used to help prevent autistic burnout from occurring in the first place:
Self-Awareness and Self-Advocacy
Developing self-awareness of one's needs, limits, and stressors is crucial. Individuals on the autism spectrum can learn to identify and communicate their boundaries and advocate for their needs in various settings, such as school, work, or social environments.
How to Identify Personal Boundaries
Identifying personal boundaries is an important step in maintaining your well-being and establishing healthy relationships. Use these tips for identifying personal boundaries with the person with autism whom you are supporting or caring for. Here are some suggestions on how to identify personal boundaries:
- Reflect on your values and needs: Take time to reflect on your values, beliefs, and what matters most to you. Consider your emotional, physical, and mental needs. What makes you feel comfortable, safe, and respected? What are the things that you are unwilling to compromise on?
- Pay attention to your feelings: Notice how you feel in different situations and interactions. Do you feel uncomfortable, anxious, or uneasy? Are there certain behaviors, comments, or actions that trigger negative emotions? Tune into your emotions as they can provide valuable clues about your boundaries.
- Reflect on past experiences: Think about past experiences where you may have felt violated, disrespected, or uncomfortable. Identify patterns or recurring situations that made you feel this way. Reflecting on these experiences can help you understand what your boundaries are and what you're not willing to tolerate.
- Set limits: Consider what you are willing and unwilling to do or tolerate in different areas of your life, such as work, relationships, or personal time. Establish your limits and communicate them assertively when necessary. It's important to communicate your boundaries clearly and respectfully to others.
- Listen to your intuition: Trust your instincts and inner voice. If something doesn't feel right or align with your values, it's likely a sign that your boundaries are being crossed. Learn to honor and trust your intuition as you navigate different situations.
- Practice self-reflection: Regularly check in with yourself and evaluate how you are feeling. Assess if your boundaries are being respected or if adjustments are needed. Also, be open to learning and evolving as you gain more self-awareness and experience.
Sensory sensitivities can contribute to burnout. Implement strategies to manage sensory overload, such as utilizing noise-canceling headphones, and sunglasses to reduce light sensitivity, or taking sensory breaks in quiet spaces.
Stress Reduction Techniques
Encourage the development of stress reduction and coping techniques, such as deep breathing exercises, mindfulness, meditation, or engaging in activities that promote relaxation and self-regulation.
Time Management and Prioritization
Help individuals develop effective time management strategies to avoid becoming overwhelmed by excessive demands. Identifying priorities, breaking tasks into manageable steps, and providing support in planning and organization can help reduce stress.
Accommodations and Support
Ensure that individuals have access to necessary accommodations and support systems in academic, work, and social settings. This may include providing sensory accommodations, flexible schedules, clear communication, or access to therapy or counseling if needed.
Encourage individuals to engage in a balanced range of activities that align with their interests, strengths, and well-being. Finding a balance between stimulating and restorative activities can help prevent burnout.
Self-care and Downtime
Promote the importance of self-care and downtime. Encourage individuals to engage in activities they find enjoyable and relaxing, such as hobbies, exercise, reading, or spending time in nature.
Building a Supportive Network
Foster a supportive network of understanding and accepting individuals, friends, family, and professionals who can provide emotional support, guidance, and validation.
Remember, strategies for preventing autistic burnout may vary for each individual, so it is essential to listen and respond to their unique needs and preferences. Consulting with healthcare professionals, therapists, behavior analysts, or autism specialists can provide personalized guidance and support in developing effective strategies to prevent and manage burnout. Contact Behavioral Innovations for more support.